Blood sugar control is at the center of any diabetes treatment plan. Hyperglycemia is a medical term for high blood sugar. Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes blood sugar to rise because people suffering from diabetes either do not produce enough insulin or unable to properly utilize insulin. Insulin helps glucose from blood to enter muscle, brain, and liver cells. Where it is used to generate energy. When glucose build up in the blood, the cells become starved of energy. It can cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels and leading to other serious medical conditions.
The management or diabetes treatment is focused on the following:
- Regulating the metabolism of carbohydrates and so therefore, normal blood sugar levels.
- Regulation of sugar absorption.
- Stimulating secretion of insulin and
- Regeneration of the beta cells of pancreas.
This write-up will focus on meaning of diabetes, types, causes, symptoms, complications, diets and Diabetes treatment.
And now you’re thinking:
How will this article benefit me?
- The meaning of diabetes.
- Types of diabetes and risk factors.
- Causes of type I & II diabetes.
- Symptoms of type I and II diabetes.
- Complications that results from diabetes.
- Foods to eat and foods to avoid by diabetics people.
- How diabetes can be managed and
- DIABETES TREATMENT.
TYPES OF DIABETES
(1) Type 1 Diabetes: It is also known as juvenile diabetes, it occurs when the body fail to produce insulin. People with type I diabetes are insulin- dependent which means they must take artificial insulin to stay alive.
(2) Type II Diabetes: Unlike people with type I diabetes, people with type II diabetes produce insulin. However, the insulin their pancreas secretes is either not enough or the body is unable recognize the insulin and use it properly. When there is not enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose cannot get into the body cells.
(3) Gestational Diabetes: Is triggered by pregnancy. Hormone changes during pregnancy can affect insulin’s ability to function properly. This occurs in approximately 4% of all pregnancies. Pregnant women have an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes in those who are 25 years old, above their normal body weight before pregnancy, have a family history of diabetes.
Screening for gestational diabetes is performed during pregnancy. Left untreated, gestational diabetes increases risk of complications to both the mother and her unborn child. Usually, blood glucose levels returns to normal within 6 weeks of childbirth. However, women who who have had gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing diabetes type 2 later in life.
(4) Pre – Diabetes : Doctors refers to some people as having pre-diabetes or borderline diabetes when blood sugar is usually in the range of 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mm/dl). Normal blood sugar sit between 70 and 99 mg/dl, whereas a person with diabetes will have a fasting blood sugar higher than 126 mg/dl.
The pre diabetes level means that blood glucose is higher than usual but not so high as to constitute diabetes. People with prediabetes are however, at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although they don’t usually experience the symptoms of full diabetes.
Causes of Type I Diabetes
The exact cause of type I diabetes is not known. What is known is that your immune system – that normally fight harmful bacteria or viruses – attacks and destroys your insulin – producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. Instead of being moved into your cells, sugar builds up in your blood stream.
Causes of Type II Diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving into your cells where it’s needed for energy, sugar builds up in your blood stream. The cause of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) include:
(a) Consumption of too much carbohydrates.
(b) Skip or forget to take your glucose lowering medication.
(d) Exercise less than usual.
(e) Old age.
(f) Have an infection.
(g) fatty foods and sugary foods.
(h) Being overweight: This is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes but not everyone with type II diabetes is overweight.
Now this is important…
The symptoms of type one diabetes often happen suddenly and can be severe. They are:
- Increased thirst.
- Increased hunger (especially after eating).
- Dry mouth.
- Frequent urination
- Unexplained weight (even though you are eating and feel hungry).
- Fatigue (weak, tired feeling).
- Blurred vision.
- Laboured heavy breathing (Kussmaul respirations) and
- Loss of conciousness (not common).
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be similar as those mentioned above. Most often, there are no symptoms or a very gradual development of the above symptoms. Other symptoms are:
(a) Slow healing sores or cuts.
(b) Itching of the skin (usually in the vagina or groin area).
(c) Yeast infection.
(d) Recent Weight gain.
(e) Numbness or tingling of hands and feet.
(g) Ants feeding on your urine when you urinate (pee) in an open place or on the ground.
(h) Going to toilet always (diarrhea).
(i) Trouble concentrating and
(j) Unexplained loss of weight.
The problem is…
Diabetes is a serious, chronic condition that is one of the leading cause of death worldwide. While diabetes itself is manageable, it’s complications can severely impact on daily living and some can be fatal, if not treated immediately. Diabetes complications are:
- Dental and gum diseases.
- Eye problem and loss of sight.
- Foot problems including numbness, leading to ulcers and untreated cut and injuries.
- Heart disease.
- Nerve damage such as diabetic neuropathy.
- Stroke and
- Kidney disease.
What exactly is diabetic diet?
Diabetic diet deals with eating healthy foods at regular time of the day that can prevent abnormal spikes in blood sugar and make sure that your body can properly utilize the insulin it produces. Of great importance is the concept of Glycemic Index (GI). Glycemic index is the food ability to raise blood sugar level two (2) hours after consumption of foods that are rich in carbohydrate.
Diabetic diets include – Diabetes treatment:
(a) Fibre rich foods
(b) Nuts and Seeds
(c) StarchyVegetables: Good examples include: water yam, cocoyam, and Irish potatoes.
(d) Low Glycemic Index Fruits.
(e) Whole Grain Foods.
(f) Lean Meats.
(g) Healthy Fats: Good examples include: coconut oil, red oil, extra virgin olive oil.
FOODS TO AVOID
If you are following a strict diabetic diet. You should avoid foods high in starch (that’s simple carbohydrate or eat them in moderation), red meat, whole milk, processed or fast foods, sugary drinks. Other foods to avoid are foods high in sodium (SALT) saturated fats, caffeinated drinks, foods high in cholesterol, trans fats, white bread, fried foods and excess food preservatives or excess condiments.
If you must consume these these foods, eat them in moderation because they block the arteries, lead to cardiovascular problems, obesity, and high blood pressure may raise raise your blood sugar levels and disrupt insulin process.
As a diabetic patient avoid staying idle. Exercise your body regularly to regulate the insulin in your blood stream. Eliminating excess calories and foods high in fat are excellent ways to monitor your blood sugar, together with cutting down overall consumption of simple carbohydrates (starch) that are basically sugars that breakdown into glucose in the body.
Presently diabetes cannot be cured but it can be managed and controlled. Always remember that what you do at home every day affects your blood glucose levels more than what your doctor can do every few weeks or months during your check-ups.
This write-up is not meant to be a substitute to where the services of a medical professional is urgently.
Always monitor your blood glucose levels, eat the right diets, adjust your medication accordingly. It is better to start your diabetes medication from lower to smaller dose.
(1) OKRA / OKRO ( Lady Finger in English; ila in Yoruba; Okwuru in Igbo; idu in Idoma; Kubewa in Hausa) Get 2 sizeable Okra pods, cut off their heads. Put the sliced Okra with it sticky liquid (slime) in cup of 300 ml water. Cover it for 7 to 8 hours overnight to avoid contamination. In the morning take out the the pods and drink the water in the cup on an empty stomach. Okra water regulate blood sugar levels that cooked one. Do it everyday to regulate raised blood sugar levels. If it is severe take it before evening meal too.
(2) FENUGREEK (Ewedu in Yoruba; Hulba in Hausa; Kerenkeren in Igbo; Idooma in Idoma) Blend the fresh leaves of Fenugreek in water. Take 150 ml of the juice two times a day.
OR: Take 1 tablespoon of Fenugreek seeds powder with water two times a day for diabetes treatment.
(3) ALOE VERA (Ebube agu in Igbo; Tinya in Hausa; Ahon Erin in Yoruba) Take 1 tablespoon of Aloe Vera leaf juice or gel after ever meal with water.
Aloe Vera contains laxative properties, if it purges you stop taking it.
(4) IVY GOURD (Gurjin daaji in Hausa; Apa igbo, Ewe ero in Yoruba) Consume one Ivy Gourd every day for diabetes treatment.
(5) ORANGE (Lemu in Hausa; Sokoro in Efik; Oroma in Igbo; Osan didun in Yoruba) Drink fresh natural Orange Juice daily with no added sugar.
(6) MILLET / GUINEA CORN (Okababa in Yoruba; Igu in Idoma; Dawa in Hausa) Millet contains good amount of magnesium that aids the body to use insulin produce efficiently and help to regulate blood sugar. Prepare pap of Guinea corn or Millet porridge and take it always early in the morning before breakfast.
(7) PSYLLIUM HUSK : Take 1 teaspoon of Psyllium husk powder two times a day daily with meal. Psyllium husk regulates blood sugar with the aid of forming fibers to slow down process of digestion.
(8) DISCOREA ALATA (Water yam in English; Isi ovuna in Idoma; Dem pwen in Berom; Arunfanfan, Isu ewura in Yoruba; Agbo tsabagbu a in Tiv; Akenodo in Urhobo; Wura in Nupe; Igiorua, Udin in Edo; Bakar dooyaa, Jikin mutum, Sakataa in Hausa; Abire in Ibibio; Ji – m bala m bala, Ji – abana, Ngbede, Onoko in Igbo; Iyo ro buru in Ijo-Izon) water contains dietary fiber that help to stabilize digestion rate and regulate blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes. Include boiled or roasted water yam to your diet.
Avoid fried water because it contains less nutrients and can raise your blood pressure.
(9) WATERMELON SEEDS : Boil 3 handfuls of Watermelon seeds in water. Strain it and pour the water in a flask. Drink 250 ml two times a day.
OR: Chew 2 tablespoons of Watermelon seeds three times a day for diabetes treatment.
Avoid the watermelon pulp because it contains diuretic properties that will make to urinate excessively and raise your blood sugar levels.
(10) INSULIN PLANT : Assist in boosting of production of Insulin naturally by activating beta cells of pancreas. Chew 1 to 2 leaf(or leaves) of insulin plant every morning for diabetes treatment.
(11) RED CABBAGE JUICE: The natural red pigment in Red Cabbage contains Betalians that assist in lowering high blood sugar levels and boost production of insulin. Take 150 ml of Red Cabbage juice two times a day for diabetes treatment. You can also add raw Red Cabbage in your diet.
(12) COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (Cocoyam in English; Koko in Itsekiri; Jwe pwen, Jwe sunan in Berom; Agbaha in Idoma; Ukovuvu in Degema; Iyokho in Edo; Eka – Ikpo in Annang; Kolokass in Arabic; Bonntore, Bonntoje in Fula-Fulfulde; Goojare, Meeroore Fulfulde in Gwari; Ikpon in Ibibio; Gwaazaa, Gwaazaa Mai Gudaji in Hausa; Ede oyinbo, Ede Osi li, Akasi ite in Igbo; Odu, Lodu in Izon; Ata m kpo in Efik; Okile in Epie; Udu in Urhobo; Isu Koko in Yoruba) It contains isoleucine that is a protein which regulate blood sugar, increases muscles strength and energy levels. Add boiled or roasted Cocoyam to your diet for diabetes treatment.
(13) CAYENNE PEPPER (Apoko eeke in Idoma; Ata ijosin, Ilufemi, ijeye, Afriremon in Yoruba; Barkono in Hausa; Ose oyinbo in Igbo) Inclusion of this Pepper in diet will help in the prevention and diabetes treatment. This pepper also enhances insulin response to blood sugar flunctuation.
(14) MORMORDICA CHARANTIA (Bitter gourd, Bitter melon in English; Garahanu in Mbula; Ndakdi in Dera; Dagdaggi in Fula-Fulfulde; Hashinashiap in Gomai; Daddagu in Hausa; iliahia in Igala; Akban Ndene, Okwunuolo in Igbo; Dagdagoo in Kanuri; Akara aje, Ejinrin nla, Ejirin weewe, Ejirin weere, Igbole Aja in Yoruba) take 2 tablespoons of fresh Mormordica charantia juice two times a day. Taking the fresh juice 30 minutes before your breakfast not only lower your blood sugar levels. It will also take of complications such as needle and pin sensations, visual defects and other conditions linked with diabetes.
(15) BANANA FLOWERS (Ododo Ogede tutu in Yoruba) Obtain 5 Banana 5 flowers. Take the yellow part and white bulb. Wash them with clean water. Cut them in to slices. Eat three times a day for diabetes treatment.
(16) GYMNEMA SLYVESTRE (Hyena Bone in English; Yardin Kura in Hausa) It help the muscles to absorb sugar from the blood stream better. Take half tablespoon of Gymnema Slyvestre leaf powder two times a day.
OR: Prepare tea decoction of fresh Gymnema Slyvestre leaves. Take 100 ml two times a day for diabetes treatment.
(17) PLANTAIN ROOT JUICE: Plantain root juice provides great hope for diabetes. Take 2 tablespoons of Plantain root juice two times a day. If the case is severe, take 2 tablespoons three times a day for diabetes treatment.
(18) HUNTERIA UMBELLATA
(Osu in Edo; Abere in Yoruba; Mkpokiri, Otosu, Osu – Igwe in Igbo) Obtain dried seeds of Hunteria Umbellata. Remove the cover. Grind the seeds into powder. Soak the powder in 900 ml of Coconut water
(Omi agbon in Yoruba; Ruwa Kwankwar in Hausa; Ame kokodia in Urhobo; Mmri Aki beke in Igbo) for 12 hours. Take 2 tablespoons two times a day before or after meals for diabetes treatment.
(19) WATER LEAF (Nte oka in Igbo; Ipi ape in Idoma; Gbure in Yoruba; Alenyruwa in Hausa; Ebe dondon in Edo) regulate blood sugar levels due to it essential minerals contents and high dietary fiber that assist in slowing down digestion and conversion of carbohydrates to complex starch. Prepare Water Leaf juice by cutting one or two handful(s) of water leaves and it tender stems in to slices. Squeeze in water or blend by using blender. Take 200 ml of the green liquid immediately after preparation. Throw away the chaff. Do it two times a day for diabetes treatment.
(20) Securdiaca longedum (Violet tree bark in English; Epo ipeta in Yoruba) Cut the bark into shred. Put 2 handfuls of Securdiaca longedum bark in 5 liters water.
Add little potash (Kahun in Yoruba; Kanwa in Hausa) and 200 ml of lime juice (Omi oronbo, Omi osan wewe in Yoruba; Ekpe nkirisi in Igbo; Ruwa lemu tsami, Kadanbuya in Hausa; Evwe in Urhobo). Put them in plastic container. Shake them together. After hour of preparation. You can start taking it. Drink it 150 ml two times a day for diabetes treatment.